Review 8

גיליון 8 – חושים, ינו' 03

חוש הטעם: תכונות, מאפיינים והשלכות, ליאת ירון

Liat Yaron, MSc. Food technology research internship sensory CEO of TNS / Teleseker-meters, advanced sensory studies

sweet, sour, bitter and salty. it almost everything – unless you add the so-called "point of fifth", which is nationality. these experiences basic we experience when the food product enters the oral cavity, and came into contact with the organelles taste acceptable treat sense of taste as to serve the individual during the evolutionary roles of a survival: taste sweet human flesh available energy reaches enter it. If this salty – may reach the mouth, delivery of important minerals. If sour – there is a possibility of fruit immature cause pain belly … if Mr. – this may be the beginning of a toxic product interaction taste – Whisper key food? No lack of interaction with other senses !!!

taste, as well as olfactory components along the so-called chemical senses. Taste is the ability to respond to molecules and ions dissolved (dissolution becomes saliva), in contrast to the sense of smell molecules reacts volatile, airborne. Sweet, sour, bitter and salty. This is almost everything – unless you add the so-called "fifth taste", which is the savory taste, taste is difficult to define verbally, and represents the kind of taste that make salts of glutamic acid (as monosodium glutamate). These are the basic experiences we experience when the food product (or other) entered into the oral cavity, and came into contact with the organelles of taste. You can feel each Thursday, or a combination of some of them – but unlike the sense of sight, where a pair of primers can create an entirely new color, the sense of taste basic tastes only "mixed" together. They may influence each other's power (oppression, or synergism) but not to create something new. The enormous diversity of the world have "reasons" beyond the four (or five) basic largely responsible for the sense of smell, as well as other senses will be shown later, and did not taste itself. The precise term to describe all the reasons beyond the basics is the "flavors". Common to refer sense of taste as to serve the individual during the evolutionary roles of a survival: a sweet taste for human flesh available energy reaches enter it. If it's from – may reach the mouth, the supply of important minerals. If sour – there is an option of fruit will cause abdominal pain because … if Mr. – this may be the beginning of an interaction with a toxic product.

Snstziim people are completely normal mentally. they also tend to have mental skills better than average, such as memory great. man capable of synesthesia able to describe, for example, , The Sound of Music particular as taste specific, or something sweet makes him see the color blue / purplish or, to see the color red will feel some smell

language – site sense language, and its connections with the brain, are the main means available to us to determine which flavor is determined. Just looking at the mirror tongue extended outward and visible lumps somewhat prominent: These are H"fafilot "(papillae). Taste cells are organized in special structures called taste buds. Taste buds are concentrated on language structures called Fafilot. Taste buds are onion-like structure bodies, which are composed of 50-100 taste cells. Each cell point of protrusions called microvilli fingers figures, and those leaving pores located at the upper end of the taste cell. Chemicals and food ingredients, known as "Tamnim", dissolve in saliva, and come into contact with the cell through these pores taste. Protein interaction is created through cell-surface receptors, or using proteins, which are ion channels. These interactions cause changes in the electrical taste cells, which generate stimulation send chemical signals that result electrical pulses to the brain. In a very schematic customary part of the tongue Zones specialize in ", as the front is more sensitive to sweetness, the sides of the front marinate, the inner sides more sour and the back – Mr. However, it is important to understand that this is a kind of precise geographical map, on the contrary: the different taste buds, as members of various Hfafilot, scattered throughout the oral cavity (even the upper palate). All buds have the ability to identify each of the basic reasons. The difference, or H"htmhot ", expressed their degree of sensitivity to different tastes. Many studies have shown how nerve-related Whisper respond to each point of a wide spectrum of Tamnim, but able to respond better and more intensely, Ltamnim specific type (1,2). Areas of specialization say the visits into one another, creating areas of overlap fractional them (see Figure 1), with each region, as mentioned, you can feel all the flavors, but the degree of reactivity is different.

Figure 1: structure of taste buds language

M"toami on "to blindness tastes people differ in their degree of sensitivity to the taste – are somewhat overall sensitivity and specific materials for their attention. Known, for example, the phenomenon of "taste blindness" (3). Linda Brtosok (4), who has studied the phenomenon for many, found evidence of correlation between the ability to sense substance called PROP and the number of taste buds on the tongue there. Who feel more strongly material were found, on average, as a greater number of buds. You can divide the population, in terms of the power they feel the material L"toami-on "(supertasters)," average taste "(medium tasters), and to non Taste" (non-tasters). Among the super tasters found in taste buds proliferation tendency, sometimes up to 100 times the amount of nodules in non-tasters, when the average tasters are usually also have an average amount of glomerulosclerosis (5). Belonging to one of three groups largely depends on individual genetic baggage. Age also plays a role, as common among infants of non-PROP tasting very low, and increases with age. Even sex has to do with that among women there is a higher incidence of tasters-on than among men (6).

The front of the tongue is more sensitive sweetness, the sides of the front marinate, the more sour the inner rear – Mr yet This is not a kind of accurate geographical map. Areas of specialization say the visits into each other, while Create zones overlap fractional them when in any area, you can feel all tastes, but if reactivity is different

interactions psychic olfactory taste interacts closely with the sense of smell. The combination of the flavor of food inserted in the mouth, the aroma is released into the nose while chewing creates an effect called flavor. The smell, therefore, responsible for a wide range of emotions we tend to call them everyday C"tamim ". In addition, is sometimes even more closely, as in the cases of flavor that can change the ability of olfactory detection. Such an effect has been demonstrated in the work of Dalton (7) which were investigated aroma solutions with a concentration below the threshold sensing. When these solutions are add sucrose, began to feel the smell: the point in this case intensified the odor identification ability. Sense of sight in addition to the smell, there are also interactions between taste and other senses. Oversized study conducted in Israel found that the color darker powerful implications for perceptions of different flavors. Numerous studies support a link between the world's color type and intensity and perception of taste. For example, the color is darker drinks affects the perception of a powerful drink higher overall taste, and in some cases having higher sweetness (8,9,10). These consequences of the sense of sight on the taste level Hfrifralit do not work, change the taste cell activity, but a way of decoding mechanism of the brain. Because of this type of interaction depends on the elements of personal experience, that creates a conditional expectation given following the taste of a given color. Similarly influence factors such as cultural and personal consumption habits (11). In studies conducted in Israel has been shown that people tend to perceive color dark beers cost more to have "a stronger taste" of alcohol. This is despite the fact alcohol concentrations were similar products taste it. One can, therefore, be certain that he felt a certain taste, and this feeling is a feeling in the mouth – which stems from fact that the feeling at the reaction of other sense (in this case, the sense of sight) interpreted by the brain in a certain way based on the earlier beliefs were rooted in it, sometimes even unconsciously.

sense of touch sense of touch is responsible for a range of sensations directly related to the perception of taste. examples: § Blankets, fatty these properties of foods, that are applied by us through the sense of touch , tend to be a suppressor point, namely the presence of flavors are felt weak, mainly due to the masking physical created between the palate and Htamnim product. § temperature: when Thai taste meet tincture flavor at low temperature, they react differently than low. soft drinks, for example, are sweet than being chilled (12). experiments other girls at Yale University showed nicely that there are other ways that can temperature affect the taste: heating zone is set to say let people taste sweet (in the absence of flavorings) and cooling caused feelings of salinity or acidity at the front of the tongue, bitter or sourness in the back (13). § pain: her neural system responsible mechanism for sensing pain is also used to transfer feelings type: astringent, itching (like soda) and sharpness.

taste shapes, smell color taste shapes, colors smell … there are people for whom these kind of experiences are everyday experiences. This strange phenomenon has been known for three centuries, but only recently received renewed interest. Today, when the term "interdisciplinary research" occupies a place of honor, awakened great interest in the phenomenon called "synesthesia" (synesthesia) (14). The name is derived from the Greek words syn (together) and Aesthesis (perception) and means "integrated sensing". A man capable of synesthesia able to describe, for example, some music sounds as specific flavor, something sweet and makes him see the color blue / purplish, or see red color feel any smell. Sinstziim have given them words evoke sensory experiences (color, shape, etc.). Known cases of people who described the taste as a form (15). Synesthesia has been described by a number of celebrities in the arts. The painter Wassily Kandinsky, for example, showed the ability to synesthesia own when listening to Wagner's music played in a concert hall in Moscow. "I saw all the colors these mind, lines stood out in front of me …. " the phenomenon has been researching early 18th century, when Isaac Newton tried to find a mathematical formula linking vibrations of sounds and different shades of light. all the people Hsinstziim declare connections between their psychic nature remain constant throughout their lives. Sinstziim surprised to learn that other people are experiencing sound, taste, etc., as they themselves are experiencing the same ((16. some facts about synesthesia: § she moves the family § more common in women: the US is in a ratio of 3: 1 ( 17), England are in a ratio of 8: 1 (18). § Snstziim people are completely normal mentally. In fact, they also tend to have better than average mental abilities, such as memory Mtzoin- sensory connection actually helps them remember many individual elements than usual. § experience synesthesia is completely personalized experience. An example is the famous Russian composer Alexander Scriabin, who has the ability to see color tones, and which has criticized his friend, the composer Rimsky-Korsakov, claiming Shsisntzih the last is "artificial". His argument was that partner Describe the scale F-sharp major, greenish, while S"hri clear that he was purple! "…

You can divide the population L"toami- on " (supertasters)," average taste "(medium tasters), and to non taste "(non-tasters). super tasters found sometimes up to 100 times quantity of nodules than no taste. Among women the rates more of a taster-on than men

Taste and Health because there is a close interaction between the taste smell, damage in one specific times by the person as an attack on both. sometimes people report that they feel their taste decline, when in fact what is impaired sense of smell. vulnerable sense of smell are more common, but also taste itself vulnerable. cells smell may be harmed directly to the viral disease. known that serious head injuries can impair the function of the sense of smell, exposure to volatile certain, and so on (19). vulnerability taste itself occurs when impaired secretion of saliva or injured cells on their own (20). Normogsih (Normogeusia) is the term for sensing taste normal. loss of sense of taste or its weak can come in several grades (21): § Hifogsih (Hypogeusia) – reduced sensitivity to taste § Disgsih (Dysgeusia) – sensing abnormal / distorted § Aliagsih (Aliageusia) – changing the type of flavor is felt § Fntogsih (Phantogeusia) – more than normal residual taste § Agassi (Ageusia) – lack of flavor. complete absence is rare, due to the multiplicity and complexity of alternative ways that allow the transfer of taste sensory message. But side Hhifogsih, Diggs and Fntogsih observed in many cases.

impaired sense of taste can happen as a result: her age, inflammation of the mouth, infection causes a decrease in blood flow to the language and disturbing for the production of saliva, gastric reflux, cases some of diabetes (and other systemic disease), exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides, disrupt some of their sentience, poisoning Lead / overexposure to fumes Zinc and copper have been reported to cause metallic taste in the mouth and radiation therapy. It is important to find modes harm the sense of taste and smell; First, there are cases where an understanding of human sensory status also contributes to the diagnosis of disease states. Furthermore, normal physiology important not only for fun gourmet restaurants – sensory dysfunction reveal the danger of food poisoning (those that can be detected by the senses of taste and smell); And the disappearance of "sensory warning bells" more – such as in situations of fire or gas leak, eating unbalanced or malnutrition due to decreased ability to enjoy the food and more. Shipman, one of the most prominent researchers in general and defects in sensory senses in particular, has recently raised its agenda, its impact on the decrease in the sensitivity of the senses various diseases. For example, she pointed to the connection between the decrease in sensitivity to salt, which leads the individual to want to consume more salt to food, and the difficulty of having high blood pressure Dietitians meet their recommendations regarding diet low in sodium (22,23,24).

summary taste is a chemical sense, reacting molecules dissolved in saliva, mechanisms specific to each type of taste. Because nerve cells flavor and some are overly sensitive to certain tastes, obtained a specialization, followed by any kind taste better felt in the different language, while still giving some overlap between the regions. Power which we feel is an individual flavors, and you can divide the population L"toami-on "," medium tasters 'and' No taste ". Taste does not work by itself, but is a close interaction with other senses, led by the smell, but also in no small measure color and touch. Some people do not only affect sensory perception but uniquely blending called Snstzih: the ability to feel a form / contact present a particular point of irritation, hearing shapes and so on. Senses of taste and smell can be damaged due to various health conditions, exposure to harmful substances and more. Early diagnosis of the problem is important because the senses are used to a man playing WARNING (toxins of all kinds), and as an aid to maintaining a balanced diet.

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