I.s Guy Moskowitz H.r 1 and 2
1 Institute of Biochemistry, food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of agricultural, food and Environmental quality Sciences, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem 2 member Moskowitz-Jacobs, White Plains, NY
choosing foods by consumers affected by variety of factors. The sensory aspect is considered as one of the most important factors influencing the choice of food before health considerations, or other factors. Therefore, when developing or improving a product in the food industry It is important to analyze and apply the information from the sensory realm. Analysis of SI, which is a tool necessary in all development processes, combining methods for quantifying the reception at the planning stage with measures of sensory When and after eating
choosing food – process complex food choices by consumers is a complex process involving cognitive and sensory elements. Cognitive factors relate to a person's access to food and the way in which the marketer / advertiser describes the product media. Sensory factors relate to the experience of the consumer product during and after eating. The last five decades have been studied patterns of choice, preference and acceptability of food. There are many models help to explain the process of selection of different foods. Several studies have focused on examining personal attitudes and beliefs of consumers in order to study the variety of factors affecting (1). It was found that the sensory perception of food properties influenced by physiological addition to accessing and consumer's personal faith (2). Another study (3) showed that the main factors affecting food selection were: the food itself (the physical properties and composition), individual (beliefs, values and habits acquired due to prior experience) and Environment Economy and Society (attitudes towards the sensory properties of food and its contribution to health). A more recent study (4) showed that selecting foods in general affected by three components; Experience effects (ideals, personal factors, resources, and social framework for food contact) and personal values (perceptions, financial considerations, comfort, health and nutrition, relationship management and product quality). These studies indicate that the food selection is a combination of a variety of variables, not a single factor.
Culture Culture is one of the main factors influencing the choice of food (5). While that most studies have examined the relationship between food choices and positions taken place in the specific cultural, few studies have examined the differences between the behavior of references and different countries (6). For example, the five major reasons set out in choosing food among all European Union member states were (7): quality / freshness, price, taste, attempt to eat healthy, and 'what my family wants to eat ".
Gender Gender man is a significant factor that affects the choice of food. In many studies, women than men expressed more positive attitudes toward foods that are low in fat (9), healthy eating (8, 10-12), and a more negative attitude towards foods and diets high in fat (3, 13-14). Moreover, women took to the quality of primary prevention. On the other hand, men rated their taste as the primary motive (8). Interestingly, the species surveyed have a greater impact on food choices than national belonging.
aspects of sensory aspects sensors (including appearance, aroma, flavor [combination of taste and smell], and texture) are generally considered The main factors in choosing the food, followed by health considerations and other factors (3,13,15-16). Found that the flavor can be used as an index for predicting food intake (17) and hedonic preference for predicting consumption of high-fat foods number (16). Sensory satisfaction, especially taste, emerged as the most important influences on intake of fruits and vegetables (14). Taste the product rated as far more important than health-related characteristics (19). It was found that the taste is the sole criterion used in the decision to purchase a particular food. Despite reported that health and taste can be used as predictors of important acceptance and intentions of purchase of the product, it only studies a few have been studied these effects (factors of taste and health) at the same time.
longing for food < / strong> longing (in this) is set to crave to food (20-24). Many theories attempt to explain the basis of longing. According to the most widely held theory, the longing to have a role Bhomaostzis (homeostasis) and she wakes up in response to nutrient deficiency or calories (25). Has been suggested that longing is affected by neurochemical variables, such as levels of endogenous opioids or serotonin levels in the brain (26-27). In addition, it was suggested that the situation affects hormonal longing for food during pregnancy and during menstruation (28-31). These studies have shown a significant relationship between the menstrual cycle and the craving for chocolate and sweets (31). However, not identified a specific mechanism explaining the link between longing and reproductive status. According to other mechanisms proposed argued that represents longing conditioned responses to environmental conditions in which food is eaten (32-33). In some cases, it is possible that longing can benefit nutritionally. For example, during monotonous diets reported an increase yearning that made the encouragement of diversity nutrition (34). This can be particularly important for elderly people with weak appetite disorders (35-36). Recently, the concept of longing for food, for which chocolate is a primary example, has received considerable attention, both in the media (37) and literature (31, 38 41). The explanations craving for chocolate and other foods varied and still controversial (42-44). Craving for food experienced in 60-97% of the respondents, depending on the type of food being tested (31,41,45). Craving for chocolate or other foods, was discovered as an expression of appetite tight caused by starvation, resulting from repeated experiences where food yearned eaten (46).
Effect senses the longing factors sensors may affect the longing in two ways at least. First, longing may occur following exposure to sensory properties of food (47-48). "Mark's response" such as the one discussed in the context of drug literature. Secondly, longing can arise from a lack of exposure or cognitive sensory characteristics of food (22). Therefore conditional yearning certain environmental markers caused by chemical changes in the brain (32). There is another possibility that hormones Shltiim primary role in lowering the threshold craving for food. Despite much interest and importance yearning for its nutritional potential, there is a lack of information about the longing for food among the elderly. According to the information available it appears that the craving for food decreases with age (20). In view of the increase in the elderly population and the increased risk and dietary restrictions (36), should be included in this age group test of eating behaviors. It should be emphasized that with age, decreased sense of taste (49) and the sense of smell (50). Diminished sense of smell can influence the aroma of the food, and thus create less irritation longing. Alternatively, a decrease in stimulation can increase the craving for the same stimulus can not be experienced more (20). Numerous reports show that diet does not increase the craving for food (41,51). Women reported a yearning for chocolate and sweets significantly more than men. However, with age, craving for sweets decreases in women. Interestingly yearning tends to occur mainly in the early evening (20).
Choosing food – Aspects Health recently has been studied the effect of health factors and taste the food choices. Developed a special scale that measures the importance of health and taste aspects of food selection process (6,12,52). The scale is based on a set of statements ranging from "I do not agree at all" and up to "strongly agree", and is divided into three sub-categories on health care (general interest in health products reduced-calorie, natural products) and three sub-groups related to taste (longing foods fresh, use in food As a reward and pleasure). despite worrying about health, sensory gratification is often more important. For example, the purchasing intentions of corn chips were attributed to the level of affection and a number of product sensory features, such as salinity, corn and oily flavor. Health aspect, which relates to the consumption of fat in the diet, ranked second. These data show that among the population that, despite the growing awareness in order to reduce the fat content in the diet, health still ranks second after taste when it comes to choosing corn chips (53). For some consumers, health considerations may change the position of the point as a crucial factor in choosing food . Understanding this important conflict of deciphering consumer behavior and market more efficient products which have been modified content / fat composition. Expectations can have a strong influence on consumer tests of sensory judgment, and you can manipulate these expectations by using nutritional labeling (54). When the participants were informed about the fat content in the product, they tended to prefer the low-fat versions, apparently to look more aware of health issues (54). Similar behavior is observed frequently in the country about the sweetness and sugar content. This type of "impression management" can cause a reaction that is not authentic (55), thereby causing inflated the importance of the cause of health when analyzing consumer surveys.
human species is a significant factor affecting < / strong> choosing foods. In many studies, women took to the quality of primary prevention, while men ranked the taste. Women expressed more favorable attitude toward foods that are low in fat and the eating healthy compared with men
important for sensory analysis food As noted, sensing a major role intends to purchase the food product. For example, based on taste tests conducted among US consumers turned out that the decisive criteria in selecting a food product is the taste and health. In a study conducted in the United States nutritional value rated as "very important" by 71% of respondents, while the taste is rated so by 80 % of respondents. a study conducted in Israel among 350 respondents found out that the Israeli consumer is typical considers the point in the product as the dominant force, while the rating of the nutritional value slightly lower (56). when respondents were asked if they are willing to compromise flavor when eating healthy product, 55% responded that or almost never, 35% said yes, and only 10% said they might. Therefore, it is clear that the point is the main criterion influencing the preferences of the people. analysis of SI is an applied science that measures, analyzes, quantifies and interprets the responses of the senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste and texture products. Science is also known as the "science of people", because it provides product developers essential information needed for business decisions sometimes have an economic effect far-reaching. Although the process of examination of the analysis and sensorimotor seem simple rather, and despite the disadvantages arising from the subjectivity of information, behind the method is about real science. The research complies with all the rules of the experiment and use scientific principles in designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing data and drawing conclusions. The skills required include knowledge of product characteristics, the ability to create terminology sensory, psychological insight, expertise in the field of experimental design, statistics, marketing and more. And sustained effort has been invested in understanding the various factors influencing the choice of food, and there is no doubt that in the future further studies to better understand the behavior and consumer choice processes. This understanding will be implemented quickly in the evaluation sensorimotor, because the main goal is to realize the understanding of the consumer to develop and manufacture the product in the best possible in accordance with expectations.
sensory testing for development – a historic development product testing early development stages was not accepted in the past despite the logic of it. First legalized product testing as a standard method in the US Army, both in determining allocations and evaluation of commercial food items purchased for military use. This procedure also slowly room industry. In the – 50 tests included a team of experts alone (57). Late – 60 members of the development and marketing have come to understand that there is a need for testing at an early stage, which will guide the development. Taste tests and consumer surveys have become an official profession in the scientific literature and conferences of the industry (58). In the – 70 tests developed significant business and many companies have started to use sensory analysis for evaluating products in early development stages. Companies long recognized the need and have invested considerable sums of money in teams of experts. At the same time began to use their services of companies specializing in consumer research. Over time, food companies began to rely more and more on the consumer survey revealed rapid, inexpensive, and reliable team of experts, which was limited in its ability to predict the acceptance of the product by the end consumer. In the – 80 sensory tests have gained momentum, and in the 90s they were adopted by most companies in most countries, including Israel. One by one, the managements of food and other industries recognized the importance of sensory analysis in adopting the product among consumers. The tools used have contributed to effective market research and helped in maintaining the quality of existing products and ensure improvement in the chances of success of new products. On the other hand, the use of small teams of experts or discontinued (59).
Consumer testing methods general considerations for testing, methods by which they are held and analysis of the results include: 1. consumer – According to the prevailing consumer of instruction properly can be used as an expert (60). 2. test site – early versions of Multi studies were done in an unstructured and informal development laboratories, with factory colleagues used the respondents audience. Referred to developers of informal taste test as a guideline only, and therefore did not relate to the briefing tasters or effect tests. In later tests unofficial ones developed three methods for official examination of products: taste tests Mall (Mall Testing ) – first, the interviewer establishes a booth / stand area where there is movement of a crowd. Then turning to potential interviewees, filter the relevant people for review, and invites the corresponding participate in the survey. site inspection centers (central Location Testing – CLT) – raising interviewees made in advance, the test takes place in a central location where respondents considering about 8-6 products in random order. The central place enables full control of the preparation conditions. In addition, you can use networked computers to perform the test, so that the final results will be available in near real time. home inspection (home Usage Testing – HUT) – consumer evaluates the product in an environment and atmosphere in which the product is usually consumed. The results are collected by a phone call or an interview with the interviewer. This method can test a number of products as long as making sure that consumers understand the order and frequency of use of the product and the contents of the questionnaire. Acceptable use this test for products that require preparation, and the context it is important to get information about the ease of use and not only appreciation of taste. Also this test suitable for the consumer may get bored after a consumer product returns. Which of the tests is the best? There is no acceptable rating of "appropriate" or "inappropriate." The method can be achieved through the specific objectives of the study, in addition to considerations of cost / benefit, is the most appropriate. In most cases, a home inspection provides more precise information but it is costly and takes longer than the alternatives. In addition, when you want to test a large number of products. Sometimes not all respondents can provide all the products tested when performing a home inspection. This is a statistical standpoint disadvantage. 3. What measure ? – Tests sensors and acceptance of products tests are tools that nature is determined by the investigator using these, and the validity test and questionnaire design and recruitment right. The test should be designed depending on the purpose. For example, there is a difference in planning the test when the goal is to describe the product characteristics (texture, taste, smell, color, etc.) or to determine whether two different products. 4. Some examples can taste ? – Some of those in the field say that the consumer is unable to sample more than one or two without getting tired or confused. Other researchers believe participant received proper training can examine a large number of products, especially if it has motivation and is resting between products to ensure continuous sensory sensitivity. Acceptable taste that can seat about 6 to 8 products. 5. accuracy and reliability – without adhering to the rules of the test there is a genuine danger of evidence is not reliable and bias the results.
longing for food may help nutrition and the role Bhomaostazis, and may arise in response to nutrient deficiency or calories. Longing affected by neurochemical variables, such as levels of endogenous opiates or of serotonin in the brain. During pregnancy and during the menstrual cycle hormonal status is also affected longing. Longing arises during diets monotony and Yes may help in encouraging diversity in the diet
understanding food preferences level conceptual developments in the field of academic research to understanding the preferences for food adapted to the business world, are trying to figure out what people really love (research and development) and a communication types to which they respond (marketing). You can measure the degree of acceptance of the prototypes of various product development stages very simply by sensory analysis. Recently, there has been progress in sensory analysis beyond a simple assessment of products in an attempt to define "rules" and "exclusions". These include issues such as the relationship between the formulation and consumer response often the question is how consumers will react to change components (such as adding flavors). Do consumers notice the differences when changing gradually the concentration of a single component (eg, sweetener), leaving the other components fixed? Is the sensory profile of varying characteristics at all? Is when increasing the concentration of sweetener product tastes better? Is the increase in concentration of the sweetener expressed by a sensing sweetness or flavor may increase overall? Typically, one can expect food synergistic effect factor complex relationships between components of the product.
relationship between aspects of sensory product acceptance when tested group of products with features sensory similar (for example, cereal with crunchy, various color and size) asked the question how these properties affect the affections product? Do cereal crunchy received by the consumer "being better" or "worse" or perhaps crispiness of no importance? When you can find a template that associates a sensory attribute (eg, brittle) Product affection can help developers create better products. This kind of analysis is shown in Figure 1. The horizontal axis shows Flavor (independent variable) and the vertical axis showing the level of affection as ranked by respondents. This chart can easily identify which level of sensory Flavor intensity raises the maximum affection product. It should be emphasized that this level is seen and the concentration Flavor has quantified analytical methods.
A study conducted in Israel among 350 respondents checked the important factor in choosing health and taste food. The results were taught like American Consumer Israeli consumer typical see-flavored product the most important factor, while the rating of nutritional value is less important
Figure 1: impact of the concept of – flavor show affection to the product by consumers (61 )
analysis of sensory dealing with complex products highlight the complexity involved in sensory evaluation of the products and to introduce some of the innovative approaches brought to a basic example based on open domestic product a few years ago, which for reasons of intellectual property will not be recognized. The example illustrates some of the steps required in order to reach an understanding concise and practical. The test presented is essentially a simple test for demonstration purposes only. Both types of yogurt (identified here as a product A and product B) were evaluated by 130 consumers in the mall. Presentation of results used in the chart "cobwebs", often used to graphically display the findings. The average value of the sensory properties displayed on delegates coming out of focus centers. this chart can compare the two products, or more, by examining the pattern obtained. This simple approach can present a wide range of sensors findings convincingly easy viewing. AJ Hill 38, L. Heaton-Brown J Psychosomatic Res1994; 38: 801-14. 39. Macdiarmid JL, Hetherington MM. J Clin Psychol Br 1995; 34: 129-38. 40. Rogers PJ. Nutr Res Rev 1995; 8: 243-69. 41. Weingarten HP, Elston D. Appetite 1991; 17: 167-75. 42. Max B. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 1989; 10: 390-3. 43. W Michener, Physiol Behav P. Rozin 1994; 56: 419-22. 44. Schuman M, Gitlin MJ et al. Nerv Mental Dis J 1987; 175: 491-5. 45. Rodin J, Mancuso J et al. Appetite 1991; 17: 177-85. 46. EL Gibson, Desmond E. Appetite 1999; 32: 219-40. 47. Cornell CE, Rodin J et al. 1989 Behav Physiol; 45: 695-704. 48. Blank DM, Mattes RD. Sensory Stud J 1990; 5: 193-202. 49. Cowart B.1989.Relationships of taste and smell across the adult lifespan. In: "Nutrition and the Chemical Senses in Aging" (C. Murphy, WS Cain and DM Hegsted, Eds). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 50. Cain WS, Stevens JC. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989;: 561. 51. IT Cohen, Sherwin BB et al. Hormones and Behavior 1987; 21: 457-70. 52. Roininena K, Tuorila H et al. Appetite 2001; 37: 33-45. 53. Tepper BJ, AC Trail. Food Quality Preference 1998; 9: 267-72. 54. Deliza R, MacFie HJH. Sensory Stud J 1996; 11: 103-28. 55. MR Leary, Kowalski RM. Bulletin Psychol 1990; 107: 34-47. 56. Saguy IS. 2000. Moskowitz Nateev Saguy, Ltd. (Unpublished data). 57. Cairncross SE, Sjostrom LB. Food Technol 1950; 4: 308-11. 58. Moskowitz HR. 1985. "New Direction for Product Testing and Sensory Analysis of Foods". Foods & Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT. 59. Moskowitz HR, Munoz A et al. 2002. Viewpoints and Controversies. In: "Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing". Trumbull, Food and Nutrition Press, Inc. Wesport, CT (In Press). 60. Moskowitz HR. Sensory Stud J 1996; 11: 19-35. 61. Moskowitz HR. J Food Sci 1981; 46: 244-8. 62. Green PE, AJ V. Srinivasan Marketing 1978; 45: 17-37. 63. Watzke HJ, Saguy IS. Technol 2001 Food; 55 (5): 174-88.
4. We thank Ms. Z. Meron for English Rewrite and Mrs. P. Greenberg on constructive comments.