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Review 8

גיליון 8 – חושים, ינו' 03

האם השנויים בחושים החלים עם הגיל משפיעים על הצריכה התזונתית ? ד"ר דנית שחר

Dr Danish dawn RD, PhD International Center for Health and Nutrition named Daniel Abraham Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva

What a sensation we feel when we taste chocolate waffles with caramel cream filling our mouths? What reaches our noses smell the chewing process of dark chocolate? Is a child of five would feel these smells and tastes differently from someone age 50? in children there is a universal liking sweet foods, food aversion bitter that affect their food selection. Among adults, however, there is a preference not always so clear and consistent. Too fat content menu an impact on the sense of taste and enjoyment of food, as the mechanism northwest of brain activity that includes the secretion of opiates, and is affected by the mass of the body, changes in weight, eating habits, culture and socioeconomic status. sense of taste and smell do change with age and may influence decreased food intake in the elderly

sensations of taste and smell are linked, as you feel a cold various diseases. Sense of taste is complex and involves a sense of taste and smell combined with other sensory stimuli. These sensations vary with age and affect dietary intake, it will focus on in this article.

Consumer Research found that taste is the main influence on the choice of food eaten (1). Taste including a chemical reaction of olfaction taste and perception of texture in the mouth. Taste and perception related to its influence on the choice of foods eaten and eating habits. Foods containing fat and sugar foods are preferred by most of the public (2) and foods lifts are known to be popular (3). Among children there is affection universal food sweet, hatred Food Mr, which certainly affects the choice of their food. Among adults, however, not always a connection so clear and consistent. even the fat content menu an impact on the sense of taste and enjoyment of food, as the mechanism northwest of brain activity that includes the secretion of opiates, and is affected by the mass of the body, changes in weight, eating habits, culture and socioeconomic status.

our perception of the senses affect our choice in certain foods, their consumption and ultimately the nutritional status. Drewnowski review article (4) suggest the following mechanism for understanding the relationship between physiology and nutrition;

will focus on taste as the responses to the senses similar in terms of the mechanisms of neurological their own, and because whisper taste major influence on the choice of food eaten.

Surprisingly there was no association between the liking for sweets and obesity among children. in comparing normal weight obese people, choose high-fat food oils containing less sugar. among children aged 3-5 fatty food selection was related weight of the parents. Children who choose fatty foods were those whose parents oils

changes in taste recovered with age and their impact on food consumption

preference for sweets

sensory preference for sweets is personal and universal. Infants show a preference cement sweet birth (5). Children tend to be classified as food Sweet preferred sweetness and strength tests they will choose the most concentrated sucrose solutions (6). Surprisingly not seem to touch the sweet affection and obesity among children. On the one hand oils showed a continued preference for sweets after oral glucose tolerance, signaled insensitive sweets (7), however it turned out, that on this issue there is a high preference among the various oils. Another study examined the effect of food preferences obesity did not find any association between a preference for sweets and fat (8).

Aging is often accompanied by a decrease in sensitivity to sucrose solution, resulting from a decrease in the number of taste buds and probably also decrease their sensitivity. There are teachers that data, that seniors prefer foods high level of sweetness as a result of this reduction in sensitivity. Research conducted recently examined the empowerment and enjoyment of different foods varies sweetness level provided for breakfast, and the effect of the intensity of the pleasure of food selection. 5 were given food served at breakfast: orange juice, jam, yogurt with fruit, cereal and chocolate spread. A comparison was made between the young and old turned out that on average the elderly need a higher level of sweetness to feel the same intensity of sweetness as they felt younger. They preferred a higher sucrose content of their food. However Interestingly, when given by the elderly preferred meal for everyone, they do not eat large amounts of food, and reported a higher level of enjoyment. The researchers explained this interpersonal diversity that existed in the elderly. Overall these data do not show relationship between sensitivity to sweet and consumption of food. Perhaps this is due to other factors that affect food intake such as lifestyle and health preferences. It is also possible population has been in short supply reacted differently. Seniors participated in this study are healthy elderly people, were compared with healthy young adults (9).

Reply fats fat known as an ingredient that adds pleasure associated with eating. The first emotional response to fat is the smell. Fat solvent molecules evaporate and spread the oily smell characteristic cooked food. In the second stage diffused feeling in the mouth in contact with the characteristic texture, and while chewing and swallowing (10). Meat fat molecules could bind water creates a sense of juiciness and tenderness of the meat, for example steak and baked goods such as cakes, too. The heat transmitted through its food contributes to crisp. In general, a high content of fat is considered a factor that enhances the taste and quality of food Although this phenomenon varies to some extent in recent years, due to reduced consumption recommendations of fats. High-fat foods are often also high in sugar, and therefore not clear whether the strong desire is sweet or fat. In comparing normal weight obese people, choose high-fat food oils containing less sugar. Among children aged 3-5 fatty food selection was related weight of the parents. That is, children who choose fatty foods were those whose parents oils. These findings indicate perhaps that preferences for food oil also has a familial component and gene (11).

With age decreases fat intake, probably due to medical recommendations, making it difficult to distinguish between the sensory and fatty food consumption, affected health recommendations. Various nutrition surveys, including those conducted in the country, was found to lower consumption of fat in the elderly population, including cutting the fatty components of meat and eat chicken without the skin. In a recent study examined the issue of the factors affecting the consumption of low-fat cookies among young people and the elderly. Among the elderly (over 65) admission of low-fat cookie was dependent on taste and texture, as well as its impact on their health. Among young people (18-40), the main consideration was the effect on weight. That is among the elderly consideration all the taste and health among young people concern the weight alone (12).

Another study, conducted by Schiffman, again compared the young (average age 22), elderly (mean age 82) in terms of the reaction of the hedonic mixture of fat / sugar mixture of fat / salt drink milk (13). both groups rated the intensity of the flavors in a similar manner, but scaling tunes related to the mix was different. among young fat content affected the rating pleasantness of food in both mixtures, compared this older population did not affect fat content. the authors concluded that, in fact, seniors can reduce or increase the amount of fat eaten by them without affecting the pleasure associated with food. of course this is a laboratory-level findings and therefore there is no real answer to the issue of eating low-fat foods by seniors with high frequency (30-40%), low intake of calories and other nutrients.

Salt lust sense saltiness of food known to be affected greatly by age. Among seniors reported reduced sensitivity to salt and excessive use of salt added to food. Despite the reduced salt sensitivity was asked whether a different salt intake in the elderly. The study, by the Rolls and friends (14), were compared with a group of young and old chicken soup in terms of their response to different levels of salinity. This research also is upgrading intensity was lower salinity by the elderly. In other words, these were less sensitive to the feeling of salinity. However, the assessment nutritionally complete and detailed, it turned out that the elderly were not consume more salt from young people, due to their ads for their health.

Changes to smell applying with age and their impact on food consumption changes that occur with age sense of smell more dramatic changes are occurring in taste. Age affects sensitivity to odors both in terms of identification and in terms of empowerment. The essential question in this regard is whether these changes in sense of smell affect nutritional intake.

To assess the impact of the decline in the sense of smell on dietary intake study was conducted among 80 women aged 65-93. Antrofomtriim measures were examined, as well as eating habits through food diaries and questionnaires habits. About 50% of women had a greater decrease in olfactory function, but these findings had nothing to do with weight and BMI (15) – the sense of smell disorder did not affect the appetite or the pleasure of eating (16,17). However For those with disorders sense of smell was less interest in activities related to food such as cooking, eating a variety of foods, preference is reduced to healthy food preference or undue foods, sweet and fatty . The researchers suggest, then, that people who suffer from the sense of smell prepare food using other senses their meaning will cheerleaders taste, texture and raises others.

Sensory specific Satiety and the level of diversity of the menu satiety and satisfaction with food stems from satisfying the senses by the amount eaten and the variety of foods, this feeling, which is actually integration of senses and sensations, is included in the concept of sensory-specific Satiety. normally after eating a particular food reduced sense of pleasant taste, smell and appearance of the food it. Change it in response to hedonic food is called sensory-specific Satiety, and is associated with a decrease in consumption of food already eaten, and the increase in the consumption of foods that have not yet eaten ( "new"). data from surveys Int'l show that decreasing age range of foods and the elderly population suffers from a relatively poor foods (18,19). eating is one of the recommendations diverse basic and most important in order to achieve a healthy diet containing all the nutrients. As and sensory-specific Satiety is one of the mechanisms that encourage diverse eating the belief explanation of the decline in the diversity of food in adulthood based on the fact that with age occurs a decrease in specific Satiety-sensory.

study by Dolls and McDermott tested sensory-specific Satiety among four age groups for men and women. The teams included adolescents aged 12-15, young adults aged 22-35, adults aged 45-60 and adults aged 65 and older 82 (20) .sensory-specific satiety decreased with age and was the lowest among those aged 65 and over. The drop is not clear, nor is a direct correlation between the decrease in sensory-specific Satiety and functional impairment of the senses.

Among young people it will increase the variety of foods eaten amount compared to their seniors due to sensory-specific Satiety a relatively low consumption and diversity remain low. The practical implications of the research work are to encourage open and sensory sensitivity to other components such as a sense food texture. For the older population using various types of fabric and a variety of foods that may contribute to increase diversity and improve the nutritional value of the diet as a whole.

different in this field is very much influenced by social, environmental stimuli and living environment. Found that seniors living in the community often consume more food variety younger population. In contrast, elderly people living in institutions does not consume a varied diet, and consume less food in total. It's about institutions, including the food attractively served and there is a buffet of a variety of foods, dietary intake exceeds the elderly. These data contribute to elderly low economic status are in a fragile state poor. even if they can satisfy the nutrient needs, their inability to buy food appeals to affect eating them.

sense salty foods known to be affected greatly by age. among seniors reported reduced sensitivity to salt and excessive use of salt added to food. Although sensitivity to reduced salt turned out, the elderly do not consume more salt from young people, due to their ads health

the mechanism of pleasure after hearing details of the feelings and senses, conducted so far, we should not forget the pleasure associated with eating. it's a pleasure to the senses broker related course by neurotransmitters or brain peptides (21). Many studies have attempted to examine the issue of pleasure associated with food, engaged in Hsrotonrgit (22). Others have examined the effect of opiate-mediated peptide and pleasant feeling of pleasure associated with eating sweet food or oil. Endogenous opioids or endorphins affect the attraction to certain foods. Attraction sweet, typical of so many people, is associated with control of opiates humans and animals. Opiate antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone reduces food intake by reducing the attraction to certain foods.

endogenous opiates are also those that create, probably, the disorder of bulimia nervosa and binge eating. Many of patients with ADHD have a passion for foods, sweet and high in fat. providing naloxone changed the preference of the hedonic sweets, thus causing a decrease in consumption of sweet foods and high-fat such as chocolate and candy bars (23).

shortages nutritional and taste taste disorders in cases of malnutrition have been associated with a deficiency B3 (niacin) and zinc (24,25), .cc, for example, Hypogeusia associated with a reduction in the concentration of Brooke Gustin. Gustin is the main protein that contains zinc. Henkin and his friends show an association between loss of zinc and Hypogeusia (26). same authors found a decrease in the average concentration of zinc in serum, and increases clearance of zinc in the urine, patients with thermal burns which opened Hypogeusia. in these patients even anorexia tied to Hypogeusia (27).

common diseases in the population of the elderly, such as Alzheimer's and taking multiple medications [Polypharmasia], may also cause changes in taste. among the elderly who receive drugs for a long time, 11% complained about Ageusia < / strong> or Dysgeusia (28). Interestingly, the high prevalence of these disorders in women. Perhaps due to the fact that women are taking more medications long-term.

food preferences among children Studies show that the preference of young children before the school is due to their knowledge of the food and sweetness . Oil acquired food preference probably in the early stages of life, so that children learn to prefer foods with caloric density and high fat content. Preference for sweet foods and sugar consumption decreases from adolescence into adulthood, but all of these findings are based on cross-sectional studies, which are not followed over the years to the same person. Take into account that preferences do not stem only from the senses. The choice also reflects a social relationship, perception of environmental health, etc. Children also show Mr. rejection of food including caffeine, wine and spicy food.

summary senses influential and diverse the needs and preference of different foods. However, it is difficult to isolate the impact and cut it off from the effects of cultural and environmental, as well as the accompanying feeling conciliatory posture, which is individual people or the environment. Among American children sandwich H"aidiali "in terms of flavor is peanut butter and jelly sandwich. In contrast, among the children of Israel the ultimate sandwich this is actually smeared with chocolate. This difference is also indicative of the difference in cultural and environmental related food choices.

sensations of taste and smell decreases with age and may affect decreased food intake. Drop eating pleasure and monotonous, which further reduces the amount of food eaten. Among the elderly if it appears, we recommend that reinforce flavor to strengthen the sense of taste and sensitivity to foods "toxic", as the sense of taste is a factor preventing poisonings due recognition tastes bitter and metallic.

References :

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